Our sun is considered to be relatively old compared to other stars. Based on one calculation decades ago, that determines the likelihood of a supernova (where every star or sun will eventually explode, engulfing the whole solar system), the high neutrino production of the sun indicated by one physicist indicates the sun should have exploded already. If it doesn’t work, it’s physics, if it does work, it’s engineering, and better techniques in the future should predict a supernova well in advance, just like studies showing a 30-year-sun-spot-cycle prove other planets are getting warmer, while this planet is getting colder. Nostradamus predicted the world would come to an end in the year A.D. 3997, and he should be taken very seriously because of his many successes. There are believed to be about 50 earth-like planets in the galaxy, and the closest, based on crude probability statistics, about 5,000 light years away. There will be a need to leave this solar system with a Noah’s Ark mission with space planes in an armada with as many people as possible and the DNA of as many life forms as possible, to travel to these foreign planets. According to the theory of Lorentzian time-dilation (Anton Van Lorentz was the mentor of Albert Einstein) if one can travel just shy of the speed of light, a trip of thousands of light years will seem like a very short period of time to those in the space ship, but thousands of years as perceived by those back on earth. The galaxies have been expanding relative to one another since the Big Bang 13.4 billion years ago, maybe they will expand indefinitely, maybe the rate of expansion will decrease under Newton’s law of gravity, and even collapse back into another Big Bang in the future, a new high-energy singularity, or a massive black hole where our current and former essences enter an event horizon and are expelled forward in time to repeat the same four-dimensional space-time universe we came from (possible from Stephen Hawking finding). This may have compelled Friedrich Nietzsche to believe we live the same life over and over again, and prophesy may be communication with a past that repeats itself. Most suns will die in a perpetual universe and become dwarfs, black holes, etc., with diminishing hydrogen to create new stars, and the bleak prospect of an expanding darker universe. Exotic matter, where atoms may one day collapse under their nuclear forces and provide new stars, or black hole singularities to possibly exploit event horizon enter-and-exit travel into parallel universes, forward or even backward in time, where the grandfather paradox can be resolved if you travel in a fifth dimension, and may provide hope Man can populate a darker universe with new suns and other possibilities.
Space planes made of high-density ceramic, it’s veins cooled with liquid nitrogen, could be constructed in absence of expensive and life-endangering tiles, with booster rockets and a turbo-prop with air foils, taking off and landing conventionally like normal aircraft. Conventional rocket-propellant, with or without hydrogen-oxygen fuel mixtures needed to obtain the 19,000 miles per hour needed to achieve the escape velocity of the earth, will probably remain standard practice. A space station on the Moon, with dirigible housing for astronauts, and deployments for deep space missions, to capitalize on the very low escape velocity of the Moon, will allow space planes to utilize rocket engines that can propel space craft at much higher speeds. Nuclear rockets, utilizing uranium or plutonium mini-to-macro explosions, would be useful for what are now unknown high speeds, and space is mostly radiation and hydrogen where it is not a vacuum, so there is no inter-planetary environmental contamination of any concern.
The most violent reaction in the universe is that between matter and anti-matter, and electrons and positrons are relatively heavy in the sub-atomic world. The equation E = m x c^2 implies a total loss of mass for a high population of electrons and positrons, multiplied by the speed of light squared, meaning insane energy for a space plane. A slow rate of particle production and interaction that leads to much higher velocities, tested with inertia sensors and robots before maximum g-forces on the human body are understood before allowing human travel, and can lead us in the only known direction to space ships that can travel relativistic speeds. High electron production is easily achieved with field-emission capacitors of large surface areas, close proximity of voltage-bias plates, and occurring in series in large numbers, and released at timed intervals with valves controlling electron guns, Tesla coils, etc. Positrons are best generated with small cyclotrons, derived from the Wilson Cloud Chamber of the 1880’s, leading to atom smashers, super conducting super colliders, and mechanisms that can use timed-valve-opening to extract positively-charged positrons with their attraction to negatively-charged electrons in timed intervals, repeating itself when rate of acceleration of the space plane slows down, until terminal velocity is achieved. The process can eject energy in the reverse direction with a main body of craft with aperture in front as well as the back, valves sealing off apertures depending on whether flight is in acceleration or deceleration mode, slowing down near the end of journey to engage in orbit, and use rocket propellant or hydrogen-oxygen-burning mini-rockets to steer craft in any direction to enter atmosphere or pseudo-atmosphere of planet and land. Mini-rockets allow deceleration to much lower horizontal speeds, and soft landings on turf not suited for conventional human-built runways.
“The more you don’t know about what you know, the more you know!”